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Part-3 Wave Phenomenon, Antennas & Radiation - Chemistry | BASIL Networks Blog BN'B

29 May, 2020

Part-3 Wave Phenomenon, Antennas & Radiation - Chemistry

Part 3: Wave Phenomenon, Antennas & Radiation - Theory and Practice
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves - Chemistry Interaction Basics

"The observer, when he seems to himself to be observing a stone, is  really, if physics is to be believed, observing the effects of the stone upon himself" - Berttand Russell (May 18, 1872 - February 2, 1970 )

Electromagnetic waves are all around this planet and are continuously interacting with everything on this planet, all life forms, plants, humans, animals and so forth.  To the curious mind many observations of various life forms do not seem to be effected by all these "fields" at least to the level that the eye may observe.  So lets look at these fields in a different point of view and with some innovative instrumentation of the 21 century with a brief review at some of the innovative observations made by a few of the Nobel prize winners over the last century

The above three Nobel prize winners set an entire industry in motion by showing the influence of molecular structures at the atomic level of an Electromagnetic Field Radiation stimulus.  This discovery of magnetic resonance of nuclei in reality is the foundation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, commonly refereed to as NMR.  Since we are addressing organic structures we will present this in reference to all carbon based life forms on this planet, it would be nice to say in the entire universe, however we will just stick with the planet Earth for now.

Wave_Index Quick Links

Quick review to set the atmosphere for Part 3:
In Part-1 we discussed the wavelength with respect to frequency and referenced to the speed of light, Lambda=f/cwhich always raise the questions why the speed of light and in that case what is the speed of light?  To start the speed of light is a reference that has been observed in a created vacuum of the time it takes a laser beam to travel one second referenced to a 1 meter distance.  The actual derived number for the speed of light is 2.99792458 108  meters/second.  OK does that number hold true in space?  Again another controversy added to the table.  For the time being if we make this a constant, we will have the ability to change it to a variable later.  We will use this to discuss the Electromagnetic (EM) radiation phenomenon being propagated to better understand some of the parameters that determine distance the EM wave travels before it dissipates in to a non measurable entity with the instrumentation we currently have available to the public.

In Part-2 we presented the Earth's magnetic field and that all life forms are surrounded by it along with a process to actually measure it and some of the advancements in field measurements that have been empirically derived.  

Authors Note:
Over the years our advancements in technology has lead the education system to be more focused and compartmentalized into separate fields of interest with a prerequisite for science and technology majors.  This was all well and good at the time, however today we are experiencing that the advancements enjoyed today and the results of some of the advanced technology have created other challenges to be investigated by allowing observations in other fields of interest and the interaction of various disciplines. These advancements have opened the door to understanding the planet and the life forms that resided in it by relying on the data observed by this advanced sensing technology.  Electromagnetic wave phenomenon and its radiated energy fields create these challenges and continue to multiply with every level of advancement.  

From the beginning where 1 Megahertz was considered very high frequency to our present day where 300 Gigahertz is a huge technology jump in less than 100 years when you consider it took several centuries to use the compass for navigation from its discovery.  There is no single event for this accelerated advancement, it was a series of interconnected curiosities and innovated experimentation and a lot of passion to move forward this fast.  This great innovation in science and technology does not happen without a price tag as with all advancements being brought into public applications.
Enjoy the series - Sal Tuzzo

What we want to cover in Part 3:
This is where we connect a couple of the dots to form the relationship between EM wave radiation, antennas and the carbon based molecular life forms on this planet Earth, the third rock from the sun Cool.  Out intent is to present what happens to the carbon based life form molecules when placed in a EM field and how the protons, neutrons and electrons align and or recombine when exposed to a EM field.  We will present the molecular reactions when a modulated EM wave or Pulsed EM filed is introduced to the already existing EM field to show that all radiation of any level does effect the molecular structure in some way.

This is worth repeating in order to remain focused  - The amount of scattered information on the Internet is overwhelming for any subject matter such that one could get lost just looking at content and easily loose focus on the intent of their initial search.  The issue of a infinite information library is not only where to start and more important, what is the expected results one is searching to find.  We will on occasion place a reminder on the expectations of this blog series in order to stay focused, "Author included".  The expectations for this series are to understand "Wave Phenomenon, Antennas and Radiation", the effects of radiated EM waves on materials in the waves path, frequency resonance of propagated waves influence on biological entities with respect to the Earth's radiations system.

Since this is an educational series blog the intent is to cover the "boring" foundations from the recorded beginning to where we stand present day on this "Wave Phenomenon, Antennas and Radiation".  We will give an overview of the several fields of discipline, physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, mechanical engineering and mathematics prior to getting into the core of the series in order to form the influence to the EM fields.  There are many physicists world wide discovering new applications as well as the home brew self educated innovators researching this "field" phenomenon which is still an experimental fact without an origin.

Lets Get Started
OK, we will address the repeated questions which always seem to popup when we discuss radiation, keep in mind that this is not a doom and gloom series, all information will be backed by scientific fact and empirically derived with the research data available for those that want to pursue their own direction with it.  We ask that you follow our copyright protocol at the end of each part of the series.

Questions & Answers

Q.  What quick example would you give to show radiation exists in our everyday lives may be damaging to us?
A.  The Microwave oven, boiling water is simple and it only takes about minute.  The microwave oven frequency resides in the 2.4 GHz band and our bodies plasma is about 50% water mixed with other viscous structures makes up the delivery highway system to "every organ in the body".  The Microwave modulates the water molecule to absorb the energy causing heat which modifies its molecular structure. Today's WiFi routers also operate at 2.4 GHz band along with other Bluetooth wireless devices such as earphones, cell phones and a lots more.

Q.  I have been using the microwave for "like ever" and I do not have a third hand growing from my head!
A.  The main reason is that fact that all microwave ovens have an RF shield designed to shield a majority of the radiation energy from the oven from being released outside the door.  That only protects the user from the external transmitted energy.  The content that is being subjected to microwaves in the 2.4GHz band is changed or deformed while it is water molecules are being heated with radiation.

Setting Basics for the Series
"If you wish to understand the universe, think of energy, frequency and vibration." - Nikola Tesla.  This is probably one of the most prolific statements made and it is very short and to the point yet will yield such abundant results.  It is a great place to introduce some of the basics we will be presenting here in this part of the series.

This topic of wireless communications and radiated energy covers several disciplines in order to understand the root cause and effect of energy that surrounds us.  The fact that there are different physical disturbances in health and well being, root cause and effect becomes an investigative challenge to insure that root cause and effects are factual with analytical data to insure the final results validity.

Introduction to Analyzing and Identifying Molecules Overview
Analyzing chemical structures that make up life forms or any other forms with the tools and instrumentation available usually require more than one test in to model the molecular structure for identification.  Listing some of the modern instrumentation used to identify atomic structures will give some insight of why the analysis is not a single stimulus-response event process.

Elemental Analysis - These processes consists of several destructive methods for determining elemental composition and requires the sample to be prepared with other known materials then placed into sample compartments where it is exposed to Infrared spectrophotometry, Optical Rotation, UV/VIS and Xray spectroscopy which reveal the non-specific Absorption/Reflection or refractive index and density.

Gas / Gel Permeation Chromatographic Analysis - This analysis is a separation by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) process that allows the identification of a compound by size and is usually limited to liquid organic solvents that are forced through a pressurized controlled column packed with specific powder material that takes a longer period of time to pass through the column depending on the size of the compound being analyzed.

Mass Spectrometry - This identifies the molecular weight and the structure from the fragmentation by shooting it through a controlled magnetic field in its volatility or ionization state and may be used to get a mass-spec weight analysis from just about any organic compound.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy - is the most common used technique since it response is natural with Hydrogen (1H) and Carbon (13C) isotopes (Hydrocarbons).  This technique requires a controlled EM field to measure the compound and it makes for an ideal example to show the molecule interaction to a radiated (EM) energy field.

Our intent is not to create Nobel prize physicists on how magnetism effects nuclei, it is to show simply that molecules are able to be manipulated in a magnetic field.  We will cover some of the detailed analysis later in the series, this is just an overview section to set the atmosphere for the series   What we want to show in this part is just how the chemistry of life forms basically Carbon based on this planet interact with magnetic fields at the atomic level.  

We will also preset some basic's on dual beam Infrared spectrophotometry which will show the how different wavelength effect the same nuclei.  The organic molecular structures in life forms vary in such a way that the resonance frequencies vary when attempting to measure them due to the makeup of the molecule.  It is like a rubber ball that is clean and bounces at the slightest free fall.  As the ball accumulates various particles that attach to the surface the ball still bounces but not as robust as when it is clean.  This is still a ball with the fundamental resonance frequency however it has other sub-resonance frequencies due to both the main resonance from the ball and the bounce stimulus from the bounce on the other particles attached.


Basic Chemistry and Periodic Table of Elements
OK, Switching hats to the field of chemistry before we start talking about molecular structure and molecules we should introduce the main reference used today, the Periodic Table of Elements as shown in Table 3.0 below.  The colors of the elements represent from left to right alkali metals to non-metals noble gas elements with room left for those unknowns show the atomic number Z (the number of protons) for each known element.  Molecules, Compounds are constructed by combining and arranging two or more of these elements atomically and will represent unique behavioral characteristics.

Table 3.0  Periodic Table of Elements

OK, lets get down to the interesting stuff and how it relates to EM fields and what has been observed that is used as the foundation of these known elements.  Looking at a simple atom, the first left hand element on the Periodic Table of Elements.  It has an atomic number (Z) of 1 which is defined as the sum of Protons and Neutrons. The proton by itself is electrically charged and has a unique spin, at least on this planet.  The proton spinning due to its electrical charge emits an electromagnetic energy ΔE at some wavelength λ that when in contact with other elements either connects or repels, the right hand rule for north and south poles and the direction of the magnetic field.  What hat was this pulled out of?  It was pulled out of coulombs's law and several other Electromagnetic energy laws produced by a current from Part-1 and Part-2 of this series.  This electromagnetic energy is defined as ΔE =  hv, where: h = Plank's constant [ h = 6.62607015×10−34 Joule-seconds] (Hhmm, there is always a constant to make these theories mathematically work) and v is the velocity of the energy ΔE being released.  Figure 3.0 shows the construct of the Bohr model of the Hydrogen Atom which we will be referencing to the magnetic fields shortly.

The energy levels or Periods labeled on the left hand side of the Periodic Table represents the number  of rings around the nucleus of the Atom,  n=1, n=2, n=3,+.... which have direct attributes as to the maximum number of electron orbiting the proton and as n increases the energy level also increases.  There also appears a unique drive towards the stability of atoms and their ability to bond with these energy levels as the fundamental driving force in nature which directs the chemical bond formations.

The outer number n or outer shell determines the kind of bond a particular atom will form with other atoms as well as the numbers of each atom in the larger structure, the outer shell is called the valence shell by shedding or gathering electrons.  The electron distribution or configuration has been characterised for each electron orbital ring as the radius of the orbit expands.  Each shell or energy ring allows e =  2n2 electrons: hence: n=1, e=2;  n=2, e=8;  n=3, e=18 and so on where n corresponds to the total number of shells and the remaining electrons in the outer shell are the bonding electrons for the element.

Figure 3.0  Rutherford-Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1H

Next are these things called Isotopes and they are defined simply as variants of a particular element which differ in neutron number and nucleon number.  All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons and the sum of the protons and neutrons make up the atomic number and the will have the same number of electrons.  So for the Carbon element which has 6 protons, 13C carbon element would have 6 protons and 7 neutrons respectively and 13 electrons, also all isotopes of carbon will have 6 protons.  There is more to this,  however the protons energy is what we will present in this part and more detail as the series moves forward as to relate electrochemical and electromagnetic (EM) radiation to the elements.

From the basic elements that make up our molecular structure, the Periodic Table of Elements and combining two or more of these elements make up a molecule like H2+O (water) which is an inorganic molecule (no Carbon).  This is interesting since human plasma structure contains about 50% H2O as a base and is mixed with other antigens for the other 50% and forms the data transport highway to every organ in the body where the data may be a pathogen or infectious agent or anything that can produce a disease that is unwanted or wanted by the body.  Simple! however now to identifying unique molecular structures becomes an issue and generally requires different test that give parts of the molecular structure where at the end of testing we are able to form the total molecular structure in a way that gives it a unique footprint graphically as shown in Figure 3.1 below.  So now that we have a basic molecular view of these molecules and that the protons of each of these molecules have other elements combined to form the molecule we are no ready to head to the electromagnetic energy released.

Line Angle

Ball and Stick

Space Filling

Figure 3.1  Graphical Representations Of The Same Molecular Structure
Carbon=Black, Hydrogen=White, Oxygen=Red

Basic Definitions:
So a quick summary to put a few buzz words in place to makes us look as if we all know what is happening, here are some simple definitions that are used when referencing elements in the Periodic Table of Elements:

Protons are that part of an atom that carry a positive charge.

Neutrons are neutral, they carry no electoral charge

Electrons are that part of an Atom that negatively charged and are part of the bonding process with other atoms to form molecules

Atoms are the smallest size matter that are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.  Every atom is a chemical element. Atoms with too many neutrons are considered unstable and radioactive

An element is made out of atoms with the same number of protons, like hydrogen is made from atoms containing one program and one electron.

A compound is a substance that is made up of two or more different elements such as water H2O, Carbon Dioxide CO2 etc.

A Molecule is a group of atoms bonded together forming the smallest unit of a chemical compound that has influence in a chemical reaction.

Atomic Number:
The number of protons in an atom; it also indicates the number of electrons and is always equal to the number of protons.

Atomic Weight (mass):
The sum of protons and neutrons.  Electrons are negligible in weight, appropriate 2000 electrons equals the weight of a single proton or neutron also both protons and neutrons are almost the same weight. The number of protons for a given element does not change however the number of neutrons may vary per element.

An Atom /element of n protons may have different numbers of neutrons, each group is called an isotope, like the Carbon element has an atomic number of 6 (protons) however, it belongs to a group of 14 in the periodic table of which 3 elements occur naturally, 12C, 13C, and 14C.  Carbon is also the most common element of known life on this planet.

Atomic mass Unit (AMU):
The atomic Mass Unit referenced to a 12C (6 protons and 6 neutrons) all elements on the Periodic Table of Elements 1 AMU = 1 12C Proton  or  1 12C Neutron

The process of loosing Electrons

Oxidation Number:
The actual number of Electrons that the Atom (Element) will loose in the chemical reaction (bonding) process.

Positive or negative charged particles.  It is an atom that has lost or gained electrons such that it is no longer and electrically neutral unit.  and example is Sodium  Na  Electrons lost →  -1e- oxidation number = 1+  →  therefore  Ion Na+.

Diatomic Elements, Gases & Molecules
Diatomic elements are pure elements that form molecules consisting of two atoms bonded together.  There are seven diatomic elements five of which are gases and formed at STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure, 1 bar @25°C) the remaining two are in liquid form and but are diatomic gases at higher temperatures.  Since these are formed using only one type of element they are considered to be homonuclear gases or molecular gases.  About 99% of the earth's atmosphere consists of diatomic molecules nitrogen and oxygen.

Bromine and Iodine generally exist in liquid form and are diatomic gases at higher temperatures.

Nobel gases are enert gases which are gases at STP and are considered monatomic gases also called element gases since they are stand alone gases.

Hetronuclear gases are those gases that have two different elements combined.  The bond in these molecules are considered non-polar.

Diatomic molecules are quite common and include NaCl known as table salt and many others.  There exists many experimental reports on all these structures and they all have a place in this series since they all have a unique behavior when exposed to various forms of magnetic energy and vibrations as we will discuss later in the series.

Magnetic Forces of Elements Bonding
There are many aspects to molecular analysis and we have only presented a brief overview of basic chemistry.  Before we jump into the magnetic moments of the elements in the Periodic Table lets look at a simple bonding of two Hydrogen 1H atoms to observer the influence the electrical charges of the two atoms have on each other to hold the molecule together.

There are basic forces for every bonding process of elements and those forces influence every element that is bonded to form a chain of atoms and the forces become complex as they hold together to form the molecular weight and energy as we will see.  A chemical bond is a union between atoms resulting in a structure having greater stability and lower energy than the sum of the energies of each element that it bonds with.   Bonds may share more than one electron, double bond triple bond respectively.  These bonds form molecules in a orderly arrangement of Ions. The molecule will have a unique size, shape and weight and may be polar or non-polar with regards to its electrical charge distribution.

Also empirically we have concluded that the protons of the elements have an associated spin that relates to its weight and charge of the protons.  This charge creates an energy field as referenced to the Bohr Atom as shown in Figure 3.1 previously.  So for simple bonding of two Hydrogen atoms together we get 2H or H2 Hydrogen gas (Dihydrogen) and creates a molecule which has four unique force state that hold the molecule together as shown in Figure 3.2 below.

  Force A = Repelling   A ↔ B  Protons
                 Force B = Attraction  A → B  Electron - Proton
                 Force C = Attraction  B → A  Electron - Proton
    Force D = Repelling   A ↔ B  Electrons

Figure 3.2  Hydrogen Gas 2H or H2 ( dihydrogen )

The fact that the proton is positively charged and therefore generates a magnetic energy field shows that it may be disrupted by an external radiated magnetic energy field and may even be separated if the field is has characteristic unique to the elements of the structure; This will be presented later in the series as we investigate other radiated energy effects.

These quantum electrodynamic forces will be equal to or less than the potential force of the individual forces of each atom involved in the bonding.  Obviously this is a very simple bond of just two hydrogen atoms.  This quantum electrodynamics forces become very complex fast as we add elements and atoms to make different molecular structures and compounds.  Letting the imagination free to think shows us that creating equations for these forces becomes very large and cumbersome as well as not very particle to work with.  What we want to keep in mind here is that there are many different electromagnetic forces holding molecules, compounds and structures together and each will have a unique resonance energy from the quantized forces holding these structures together.

So the question is, will molecules be effected by EM waves?  The answer is absolutely!  The real questions to be asking are:  To what extent will this disrupt the molecular structure?  Will the molecular structure return to its original state when EM wave is removed or will it mutate and regenerate into a new structure?  These and other observations will be addressed later in the series, for now this is just an overview that will trigger the mind into asking critical questions.


Electromagnetic (EM) Fields And The Proton
OK, we will keep the math simple, what we want to present is the concept of how an EM field influences the proton and its spin.  From basic chemistry and physics we may now accept the fact that the nucleus of the atom is made up of Protons and Neutrons and have electrons floating around the outside the nucleus as energy levels in various rings as we presented from the Periodic table and that protons contain an electrical charge, spins at a rotational velocity which develops an electromagnetic energy field radiating from the atom.  

So, when we place the proton in a stronger homogeneous magnetic field alt it will be forced to align with the stronger field, shown in Figure 3.2 and will exert a torque Tp in order to maintain this alignment;  the Torque the proton exerts is defined as Tp = μ altSinaltand is considered the reference state of the proton or molecule within the homogeneous magnetic field alt .  It is always a good practice to use the current laws of physics to explain phenomenon until they can be proven incorrect, we will follow that process, however keeping an open mind set will help in the derivation of these magnetic and chemical phenomenon.

Figure 3.2  Proton Spin in a
Homogeneous Magnetic Field

Accepting that derivation as combining two or more atoms form a molecule that emits an energy and when placed in a stronger homogeneous magnetic field alt will develop a proton torque to align itself with  field alt .  The angle alt is the angle created by the alignment of the proton inside the field alt and will continue to rotate at its angular momentum vector Lp, emitting an energy wavelength referenced to its spin.  The molecules emitted energy wavelength becomes complex due to the bonding of other elements where the total emitted energy is quantized from the bonding and will have a specific spin resonance unique to the molecular structure.  The effects of this magnetic property is defined as a magnetic moment μ of the molecule of mass mp.

Each of the elements protons will spin at its unique angular momentum and will emit their energy wavelength, however when all is at equilibrium the amount of energy will be less than the sum of the individual elements energy of the combined molecular structure and will also have an equilibrium fundamental energy wavelength that is unique to the molecular structure spinning at its natural angular momentum Lpm.


Figure 3.3  Proton Spin When
an Energy Field Bflip flips 90°

When a secondary magnetic energy field alt is introduced at right angles to the homogeneous magnetic field alt the proton will be flipped off its axis and forced to align itself with the quantum forces around it until it finds itself in an equilibrium state  again.  When the secondary magnetic energy field alt is removed or is no longer present the proton will once again attempt to align itself with the forces surrounding it and will return to a state of equilibrium in the homogeneous magnetic field altwhere it was place.  Observing magnetic energy phenomenon of elements and molecules brings up some interesting characteristics and questions.  

Figure 3.3 shows the proton or molecule being flipped 90° so, would that be the ideal flip angle?  Since the proton or molecule is disturbed by an external magnetic force alt, how much force do we disturb it with ?   What happens when the flipping force alt is removed?   Keep these question in mind a we move forward with this series.


Figure 3.4  Proton Spin When
an Energy Field Bflip flips 180°

OK, so we now flip the molecule 180° and what happens, well understanding the experimental laws of magnetism for North and South poles the molecule would realign itself back to its equilibrium from the point before the force was introduced if the molecule remains in its original structure.  Figure 3.4 shows the force alt flipping the proton 180° and the FID would be either positive or negative however the | absolute | values of the components of the FID would not change.  

So, theoretically applying the energy conservation laws one would expect the proton or molecule to revert back to its equilibrium state prior to the external force alt and if the force is a "non-destructive" force.  So moving forward with this train of thought the molecule or proton should return to its equilibrium state when the force is removed.  

There are other longevity test that will be introduced later in the series on induced radiation effects of molecular structures, however this is just an overview of magnetism and molecular chemistry at this time.

The structures return to find its equilibrium is defined as the molecular structures Free Induction Decay (FID) and will be unique for the specific bonding with other elements to form the molecular structure.  This Free Induction Decay when measured in the instrument looks like a dampening waveform as shown in Figure 3.5a as an Induced Field vs time required for equilibrium of the molecular structure that was placed in the homogeneous magnetic field alt.  Figure 3.5b shows what the frequency bin analysis using a Fourier transform algorithm looks like to identify the bonds of the molecule Acetaminophen Parts Per Million (PPM) from the reference frequency of the induced magnetic field.  The lines are that actual bonding influences of the molecular structure.  This is the basis for Pulsed NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Spectroscopy, the instrumentation and system functionality we will cover as the series moves forward.  Separating the resonance's of a group of elements in a bonding chemical chain.

Figure 3.5a  Free Induction Decay (FID)  of a Molecular Structure Acetaminophen

Figure 3.5b  NMR Spectral Analysis of Acetaminophen FID

As you add more types of elements protons through bonding together the FID becomes more complex and will have more spectral lines associated with it and separating groups of these molecules through a chromatographic process will allow this to be more useful.  This is why multiple analytical techniques are required to analyze and model chemical structures.  The spectra in Figure 3.5b above is the Fourier transform of the FID in Figure 3.5a and separates the FID into frequency bins that are represented as PPM (Parts Per Million) from the main element in this case is 1H hydrogen reference at 100.0000 MHz and the FID is the PPM deviation due to the induced magnetic field.  Each main element has a unique spin frequency and a unique magnetic moment μ and mass.  The weight of the molecular chain that makes up the molecule depends on the number of elements bonded and how they are bonded together.

The original experiments entailed an electromagnet to produce the homogeneous magnetic field alt  with a probe holding a sample tube placed in the center containing two coils orthogonal to each other, one pulsed with the stimulus and the other to detect the response.  Figure 3.6 below shows the basic block diagram of an NMR system.

Figure 3.6  Basic NMR System Block Configuration

Summary of Electromagnetic Fields & the Periodic Table:
There is lots more to the theory and analysis of EM fields and their effects on the chemistry of life forms to say the least.  This is just a real brief overiew to present concepts that we will be using throughout this series on the magnetic properties that the human body experiences every day, which just adds more questions for the discussion.  What we want to look at here is the unique effects electrochemistry, both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation has on the molecular structures within human plasma and its effect on the organs since human plasma is the transportation highway to every organ in the body.


Analyzing molecular structures is a continuous learning event which is a lifetime field of interest in itself and really exceeds the intent of this series.  In order to keep a unique direction for this series multiple disciplines are required to link it all together.  To present an overview of the different disciplines is what the first parts of the series is set to accomplish.  The remaining of the series will discuss details of each of the theories pertaining to Wave Propagation, Antennas and Radiation.  At the printing of this part of the series there are no inexpensive EMF meters that will measure radiated energy above 10GHz band which is only the 4G frequency band and below.

As the series progresses the author, Sal Tuzzo will be available for discussion through the BASIL Networks Contact Form for those that want to apply this series to conduct their own experiments.  The Author is always be appreciative for the private comments sent through the contact form for suggestions and advice during the development of this series.  This is a growing opportunity for everyone entering into RF product development arena as well as a great review for us "well seasoned" in the field to just refresh our human DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory).

It is recommended for those that have specific questions on the series to use the BASIL Networks Contact Form to separate them from getting lost in the general comments for each blog presentation.  For all specific design request or contracts please feel free to contact us.

Part 4...n  Preliminary Outline for the series "Basic Wave Phenomenon Antennas & Radiation" -Continued
There are many more Laws of energy transmission in the wireless arena that will be addressed as the series progresses showing the relationships between them and how they relate to the wireless communications as they are applied today.  Energy distribution laws we will address are:  Planks Law,   Stefan-Boltzmann Law,  Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Law,  Wien Displacement law,  Emissivity,  Kirchoff's Law,   Lambert's Law also know as the Beer-Lambert Law,  So as we see there are many theories that have been experimented with however, with all these laws there are still anomalous deviations that seem to fall outside the norm which we will discus later in the series.

Wave_Index Quick Links

The books in these references are my Northeastern University college of engineering text books except for the Ultra-High-Frequency Techniques, that was a gift from a colleague.

Ultra - High - Frequency Techniques (1942  D. Van Nostrand Company)
    J.G. Brainerd,  Professor EE Univ. of Pennsylvania
    Glenn Koehler, Assistant Prof. EE Univ Wisconsin 
    Herbert J. Reigh,  Prof. EE Univ. Illinois
    L.F. Woodruff, Assoc Prof. EE  MIT Massachusetts

Wave Propagation and Antennas (1958 Library of Congress: 58-9431) by George B. Welch Professor of Physics Northeastern University and Professor Hollis S. Baird whom I have had the honor of being one of his students.
Basic Microwaves (1966 Library of Congress: 65-16814) Bernard Berkowitz
Physics (1966 -ISBN: 0 471 71715 0) Robert Resnic and David Halliday Part I
Physics (1960 -Library of Congress: 62-15336) ) Robert Resnic and David Halliday Part II
Fundamentals of Physics  Revised Printing (1974 ISBN 0471-34431-1) Robert Resnic and David Halliday
Signals in Linear Circuits (1974 ISBN 0-395-16971-2) Jose B. Cruz and M.E. Van Vlakenburg

The Authors personal class notes from the 1970's on NMR, IR, Mass Spectrometry, Chromatography and Chemistry.

Wikipedia - On-Line Knowledge Center

Publishing this series on a website or reprinting is authorized by displaying the following, including the hyperlink to BASIL Networks, PLLC either at the beginning or end of each part.
BASIL Networks, PLLC - Wave Phenomenon, Antennas & Radiation Part-3 Electromagnetic (EH) Waves-A few more basics for the series: (May 28, 2020)

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Sal (JT) Tuzzo - Founder CEO/CTO BASIL Networks, PLLC.
Sal may be contacted directly through this sites Contact Form or
through LinkedIn

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